chapter
11 Pages

Introduction

Land-lockedness is the condition of having no access to the open sea and is one that affects some 44 countries. More states still struggle to preserve their independence in the face of restricted openings to the sea via corridors or constrained seaboards. Given the violence surrounding the creation of improved outlets to the sea, as in the case of Iraq in the invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, and the elimination of existing corridors, as in the case of Ethiopia’s loss of Eritrea in 1993, the subject has an interest that will not be gainsaid. Yet there are few major studies of the subject per se with the honourable exception of Professor Ira Glassner (see his contribution).1