Asking the Right Question: When Do Economic Sanctions Work Best?
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Contemporary sanctions episodes lend credence to the long-running view that "economic sanctions have historically proven to be an ineffective means to achieve foreign policy objectives."4 Nine years of the most universal

economic sanctions ever imposed have not compelled Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein to change his behavior.5 Likewise, economic sanctions have not cowed Slobodan Milosevic, the president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.6 American threats to renounce China's most-favored-nation status have not changed Chinese policies on human rights or religious persecution. Finally, the threat of economic sanctions in the spring of 1998 compelled neither India nor Pakistan to refrain from nuclear testing.