For many years, assessment has been taken for granted and considered unproblematic. Assessment followed teaching and indicated which students had achieved most from a course. Results were reported as percentages, grades or pass/fail. Assessment was usually undertaken after the end of a course or subject and, in higher education, assessment tasks were usually set by the person teaching the course, with some oversight by others. Students clearly had no role to play other than to complete the assessment requirements under the conditions set for them.