chapter  1
Pages 8

Other researchers too have reported the increasing control that children manage to gain over the pencil and their ability to curtail their loopy or spiralling scribbles in order to form a roughly circular closed form (e.g., Bender, 1938; Piaget and Inhelder, 1956). This is important according to Rudolf Arnheim (1974) because the enclosed shape seems to suggest a figure against a background and opens up quite staggering possibilities of representation. By placing dots or scribbles within or outside the shape the child can represent important spatial relationships between objects or parts of an object. For example, a figure's eyes, nose and mouth can be contained within the boundary of the face. In Figure 23 two fish are contained within the boundary of the house in the centre of the picture.