chapter  5
38 Pages

Poland: Higher Education and Science—A Survey

Development before 1989: A Historical Outline The Soviet political and economic system was transplanted to Po­ land at the end of the 1940s; higher education and the scientific and technological infrastructure were reorganized and adjusted to the requirements of the Soviet-type state and command economy. So­ viet advisers were present in all ministries and governmental agen­ cies; under their supervision, the leaders of the Polish United Work­ ers Party and Soviet-trained specialists, who usually had only a rudimentary preparation, effected some far-reaching changes. Pre­ war employees were brushed aside or were forced to operate within the system irrespective of their own views. At the same time, “many new, so-called Marxist economists, philosophers and other special­ ists were inducted into higher places of learning.”1