During the period between the relocation of the government from mainland China to Taiwan in 1949 and the revision of the Teacher Training Law in February, 1994, five basic philosophies guided teachereducation (Ministry of Education, 1992a). First, teacher education was regarded as instrumental to military defence, as the nation had been under the threat of invasion from mainland China. To assure the survival of this tiny island, therefore, the government not only made great efforts to build a strong and modernised military force but also to concentrate on educating the citizenry as to their predicament. Thus, teachers were responsible for producing educated and supportive citizens. In parallel with military defence, the government established and fully funded teacher training institutions. The private sector was not allowed to set up teacher teaching institutions.