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Unity and Contradiction: Some Arguments in Utpaladeva and Abhinavagupta for the Evidence of the Self as Śiva

Within the complex we call KasmTr Saivism, the School of Recognition (pratyabhijna) is, philosophically, the most articulate. Especially Utpaladeva (first half of the tenth century)1 and the many-sided Abhinavagupta (around 950-1015)2 argumentatively worked out the themes of the school, partly in defense against the Buddhism flourishing at that time in KasmTr.