The majority of these were conducted in the United States (66%), with 18% conducted in Canada, 11 % in the United Kingdom, and 5% in Australia. Most of the first authors of the studies were female (87%) and European American (50%) also. Ethnicity had to be inferred on the basis of familiarity for 47% of first authors. Females also were most often second authors (24%) and third authors (8%). Males were 13% of first authors and 3% of second authors. The gender of 73% of second authors was not stated and could not be inferred. Most authors conducted their investigations from multiple theoretical frames of which 66% were critical literacy or some type of feminism (42%), such as poststructural feminism, socialist feminism, critical feminism, radical feminism, and unspecified forms of feminism. Literacy as a social practice also appeared in 29% of the studies, as did social constructivism (21%) and language as a social practice (8%). About one third of this research was case study, one third was qualitative; two thirds was published.