These themes are identified and exemplified in the following sections.
Several authors wrote about how their own literacy development was regulated by their notions of what constituted appropriate reading materials for their gender. For example, in an article examining their literacy roots, Rick Erickson, Wayne Otto, Alice Randlett, Bernard Hayes, Tom Cloer, David Gustaf son, and Ken Smith (1998) recalled male-oriented literacy sources, such as Mad magazine and stories in Playboy, which constituted peer-accepted reading for adolescent boys in the early 1960s. Erickson attributed these sources to providing him with a "lifelong passion for satire, humor, and good prose" (p. 212). Similarly, Bernard Hayes (in the same study) identified "Boy Books," baseball novels of the 1940s written by John R. Tunis. Hayes described these books as creating a world intuitively known to every boy who ever played catch with his father or listened to his grandfather's renditions of famous baseball games of yesterday. Hayes said of the books,
Accordingly, Ken Smith, another Erickson colleague, recalled male figures in his reflections on his early literacy roots. He noted reading magazines aimed at boys, such as Boy's Life, and reading stories about male historical figures. He also reported reading male authors, such as Charles Dickens.