A second theme in both the gender and reading and gender and writing studies was freedom. In the writing studies, it was the freedom of writers' workshop in topic selection. In the reading studies, it was the free choice of book selections and unstructured literature response for reacting to those selections. Each of these freedoms, however, may actually constrain students by reinforcing their gendered identities and literacy practices. See Cherland (1992, 1994) for a discussion of reader response, Hunt (1995) for a discussion of free-choice writing, and Luce-Kapler (1999) for a discussion of free-choice versus teacherselected literature.