Most studies of gender and discussion were done with middle school or junior high students (36%) or done with elementary students (30%). High school students were 17% of the studies, whereas graduate students were 7%, and 10% focused on a combination of grade levels. Some studies investigated students in more than one subject, with 52% conducted in language arts and 28% in science. Studies in other content areas included social studies and geography (14%), mathematics (10%), content literacy (10%), and technology (3%). Sixty-seven percent of the studies included both males and females with 13% conducted with females only, and 3% with males only. Participants' sex in the other studies was not stated.