chapter  12
42 Pages

RESIDENTIAL LOCATION AND FERTILITY

In a work committed to examining potential policy measures that may bear on fertility or fertility-related behavior, it would be difficult to avoid the topic of residential location. There is, after all, an immense literature pointing to the presence of an inverse relationship between urbanization and fertility across a wide range of the less developed countries.1 How­ ever, several data sets do not show the expected relationships between community type or city size or agricultural versus nonagricultural occu­ pations and fertility-for example, India (Robinson 1961, Das Gupta et al. 1955-56), Egypt (Abu-Lughod 1964, T. Paul Schultz and Da Vanzo 1970a, Omran 1973), Senegal (Lacombe 1972), and Zaire (Romaniuc 1963). One need only open a Turkish census volume to discover that in the rural sections (population less than 10,000) of several western provinces the child-woman ratio (children under five per thousand, women between the ages of fifteen and forty-four) is about 600 or less but that Diyarbakir, an eastern city of over 100,000, has a ratio of 800 (Turkey, State Institute of Statistics 1969).