While the rationale for these programmes can be found in the conceptual framework of the PSSD, they were developed independently of each other. There was no conscious effort to integrate the PSSD in their design or formulation. As a result, there are gaps and duplication. Conditions attached to grants or loans stimulated or accelerated several policy reforms. Some were real hurdles for the Government of the Philippines to overcome, notably forest charges and the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) law and its implementing rules and regulations.