IT IS PERHAPS not surprising that some of the speediest reactions to the problem of reducing or recycling wastes have come from industry itself. It has, of course, always recycled a good deal of its own internal scrap and waste without much fanfare. It is also most accustomed to careful cost-benefit analysis. The first effect of environmental controls, particularly where the principle "the polluter pays" has been strictly enforced, has therefore been to encourage industries to take a new look at their own disposal policies. A lot of the productive sector's opposition to new environmental regulations was based on the fact that adding equipment to cut down polluting air emissions or building a treatment plant to ensure that effluents met prescribed standards was expensive. It did put up operating costs, since the disposal costs were no longer handed on to nature.