In this paradigm, learning is seen as an active construction of meaning (see chapters one and two). It is in many ways a reaction to positivistic interpretations of learning. Positivists see 'objective' science as universal, and knowledge of the world as value free; reality is fixed and exists independent of human thought. From a positivist perspective, developing an understanding of place means coming to a shared understanding about a set of objective truths. Teaching children about place is often seen simply as a process of transmitting a set body of immutable facts about the world. Teachers taking this approach tend to emphaSise the importance of developing children's knowledge base and their ability to locate places and sometimes fail to appreciate the need to develop deeper conceptual understanding. In turn, such teachers also often measure children's learning by assessing the extent to which they are able to memorise locational facts and repeat newly presented information.