Protected areas and conservation policies ore usually established with only local nature and wildlife in mind. Yet they con have far reaching consequences for local populations, often undermining their access to resources and their livelihoods. This book is the first comprehensive discussion of the social consequences of protected area schemes and conservation policies. Drawing on case studies from North America, Europe, Asia, Central America and Africa, it critically reviews current trends in protected area management, and shows how local people have been affected in terms of their customary rights, livelihoods, wellbeing and social cohesion. The loss of secure livelihoods ultimately threatens conservation, as poverty and environmental degradation intensify in and around protected areas. The leading authorities who have contributed to this ground breaking volume argue for a thorough overhaul of conservation thinking and practice.