Catastrophe and creation
Chiefs and kings in the interior were usually positively inclined toward such treaties. They apparently thought that direct contact with the Whites would favor them and they foresaw larger profits from trade in the future. On the other hand the African middlemen were understandably worried and embittered (see Johnston 1908:90). The white traders at the coast and in the Congo estuary suspected from the start that the Association would try to monopolize trade with the interior (Coquilhat 1888:30).