The early threat by people with AIDS to resist science through noncompliance has been met with a restructuring of scientific method that has rescued the docility of the gay subject. Through the construction of a new class of citizens, those with “life-threatening illnesses,” the state has codified a new responsibility in response to an old predicament. After the social organization of patient experience into effective political lobby groups, clinical research practice is shifting to incorporate a dimension of clinical treatment, a practice that attempts both to advance therapeutic science and to care humanely for chronically ill patients. The rescuing of patient compliance from the threat of angry anarchy has served to build the prestige and power of the medical research establishment. The focus on subjects has revealed shifts in power relations: between patient and doctor, and between a subordinate sexual community and government.