chapter  I
51 Pages

New Master Problems

In the course of the nineteenth century the old master problems begin to lose their priority. The master problem, in the early period of European civilization, was the building of churches. It was par excellence the great composite task in which all the arts were employed. The work of art in question is the landscape garden. The landscape garden had its origin in England about 1720 as a conscious protest against the architectural gardens of France. While the landscape garden was approaching its classical form there appeared round about 1780 a new master problem, that of the architectural monument. In the thirties domestic architecture and the architecture of utility become the problems, in the solution of which the highest degree both of novelty and quality is achieved. The accent in domestic building is on comfort and habitability. The love of littleness is perhaps the most characteristic feature of the 'Biedermeier' period.