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Postscript

I wanted the last words in this book to be about Patty, rather than about linguistic or psycholinguistic theory. I am often asked whether Patty realizes the extent to which her English is non-nativelike. The answer is yes and, in a way, no. Patty is well aware that her pronunciation is different from that of native speakers and that she often omits morphological inflection. She herself feels that she writes more accurately than she speaks. As we have observed, this self-assessment is largely borne out by the data examined in these pages. What she lacks is any “non-nativelike” sense of limitation or expectation that her expressive capacity in her adopted language will be compromised. Again, she is largely right about this, too.