Growth Controls, Smart Growth, and Zoning
This chapter aims to study the term "urban sustainability" and discusses what it means in terms of property rights, land-use restrictions, and the implicit trade-off between the current property rights and the pursuit of a better world. The promotion of compact cities or smart growth is common in Europe and Canada. Property rights issues are at the heart of the analyses of zoning and other methods of controlling growth. Advocates for controlled growth want to preserve agricultural land and green spaces, diminish road congestion and the consumption of energy, offer public services efficiently, and guarantee the sustainability of the inner city. Growth management programs tried to control environmental and fiscal effects by declaring a moratorium on utility connections and collecting installation fees for providing services to new residences. If growth controls do reduce negative externalities or congestion costs, they produce amenities that are capitalized into the value of land. The control also influences the housing market and population density.