Music is frequently incorporated into portrayals of Other beliefs and religions and their practices and rituals. In some cases, including Bishop's opera Aladdin, Arthur Haggard's story 'The Kiss of Isis' and Rider Haggard's writings, music is associated with the mysticism and magic so frequently attributed to the 'Orient'. Owing to the well-recognized tropes of female sexuality, otherness and music, musical imagery could also be used to effeminize the male Other, as in a few of these case studies, as on occasion in the literary works of Conrad and more particularly Wilde. Thus across the art-forms music is employed both to emphasize (primarily) female othered sexuality, and/or to establish women as sexual voyeuristic object. Despite the dominant conceptual features of musical otherness there are differences between the case studies, and the nature of the forms and genres of the artworks affects the styles of representation of the musical 'Orient' and Other within them.