Sociology After Independence
Ramkrishna Mukherjee used the term 'modernizers' for the sociologists who came to dominate the field of sociology in India soon after independence, and 'denounced the historical approach as pseudo-scientific and adopted the "structural-functional" approach guided by a positivist orientation'. Ramachandra Guha considered the issues such as social conflicts over natural resources, indigenous conservation systems and changing attitudes to nature as important for environmental history. Elizabeth Whitcombe examined the advantages and disadvantages of canal irrigation system introduced by the colonial authorities in the region of Uttar Pradesh. Aparna Basu examined how 'national education' was started in Bengal from 1905. D. Parthasarthy's study of urban violence in historical perspective throws much light on the sociology of violence. He discussed how rich peasants under different kinds of pressure migrated to the cities, where their old rivalries gave rise to collective violence.