Second-Language Oral Proficiency and Second-Language Literacy
In this chapter, we examine studies pertaining to the relationship between English oral language proficiency (vocabulary, grammar, and listening comprehension) and various English reading skills among English-language learners. Although oral language proficiency is one of the many components that influence the development of literacy, it is reported on separately in this chapter, rather than as part of chapter 4, because of the important role it is presumed to play in the development of literacy in language-minority students. The chapter is organized according to literacy outcomes. We begin by reviewing studies that examine the relationship between diverse aspects of English oral proficiency and word-level reading skills in English, including word and pseudoword reading and spelling. This is followed by an examination of research on the relationships between various aspects of oral language proficiency in English and text-or discourse-level skills (i.e., reading comprehension and writing). Each of these skill sets is addressed within a developmental framework.