Cross-Cutting Themes and Future Research Directions
Summarizing research on a topic as complex as second-language literacy is a Herculean task. The complexity of the panel's work is revealed in the topicbased organization of this volume and in the richness of the synthesis chapters provided in each part. Understanding the development of second-language literacy skills requires at least the following subtasks:
• Understanding the complexity of the reading process. The contributions to successful reading made by accuracy and fluency in word reading, control over the requisite language skills (vocabulary, syntax, discourse structures), and world knowledge have all been richly documented for monolingual readers. Although the reading process is complex for all students, the individual differences among English-language learners greatly increase the complexity of the task of understanding the reading process for these students.