The previous chapters have examined the roles played and contributions provided by different non-legal professionals in Japanese criminal justice, both in connection with the roles played by legal professionals and against the background of the changes that either gave birth to or affected the roles played by “outsider”. In doing so, these chapters have also painted a picture of Japanese criminal justice policy making and practice. In view of the focus on different players and both long-term and very recent developments, this picture looks somewhat like a collage of different pieces that one can twist and turn so as to make visible what from one point of view would remain out of sight. This picture is of course not complete – leaving aside the question of the possibility of a complete picture. It does not aspire to say everything. It does, however, say many things at the same time, thereby highlighting the diversity of perspectives, points of reference and aims of criminal justice that make it into such an incredibly complex, internally differentiated whole of interrelated elements. It is not surprising, therefore, that the previous chapters do not allow for unequivocal bottom lines or yes or no binaries. They do, however, bring into focus a number of recurring themes relevant to understanding the role and contributions of the legal outsiders that are the focus of this book. This conclusion addresses these themes and their implications for understanding outsiders’ roles in Japanese criminal justice.