Memory, Intelligence, and Literacy
Reading comprehension is made possible by the recall of stored images that give meaning to print. Memory is embedded in the whole process from perception to resolution. Perception, the immediate interpretation of input from the senses, depends on memory. Memory depends on perception and is influenced by emotion and imagination. Without memory there can be no learning and no retrieval of past experience. Affective memories are recalled spontaneously and without conscious attention as the pleasure or punishment concomitant of an experience. Affective memory is consciously engaged by readers of literature to enhance their ludic experience. Short-term memory tasks are incorporated in most individually administered intelligence tests. Baddeley's conceptualization of a working memory assigns phonological coding to an articulatory subsystem comprised of two components: a phonological input store; an articulatory rehearsal process involving subvocal speech. Child subjects were selected by Hitch and Halliday as a potential model of how a working memory develops by conducting investigations on children of different ages.