This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book describes the theoretical principles underpinning the surge of international codification attempts for maritime carriage liabilities and rights, and separates them from the principles behind the laws of international sales. It observes that a freedom afforded by one article, for example Article 35 of the Rotterdam Rules (RR), shifted attention to the articles of the RR on electronic transport records. The book examines the articles of the RR on electronic commerce. It illustrates whether the provisions of the RR on e-commerce can operate, and whether such an operation is in line with the progress of English law in this field on the one hand, and with the private initiatives of electronic systems available to the shipping industry on the other. The book offers a critical analysis of the most controversial concept of the RR.