chapter  21
B- and T-Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma
ByDongyou Liu
Pages 6

This chapter presents a state of the art summary of B- and T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (B-ALL and T-ALL) to its definition, biology, epidemiology, disease mechanisms, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Collectively referred to as acute lymphoblastic leukemia, B-ALL and T-ALL are characterized by the overproduction and accumulation of cancerous, immature precursors in the bone marrow, leading to the inhibition of normal cell generation and damages in various organs. Risk factors for B-ALL and T-ALL include exposure to radiation, cigarette smoke, cleaning products, detergents, benzene, paint strippers, and pesticides; infection with human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus-1 or Epstein-Barr virus; inherited genetic syndrome, and family history of autoimmune diseases. Clinical symptoms of B-ALL and T-ALL result mainly from a reduced production of functional blood cells and include fever, cough, vomiting, generalized weakness, anemia, dizziness, frequent infection, loss of appetite, excessive bruising, chest/bone/joint pain, shortness of breath, enlarged lymph nodes/liver/spleen, pitting edema in the lower limbs and abdomen, and weight loss.