Markets and Concessions
All the existing empires endeavour to reserve their markets, in a greater or less degree, to their own nationals. There are two policies: one of "assimilation", under which the tariff in the colonies is the same as that of the mother country, which is highly protectionist; the other of "preference", like those with which are familiar in the British Empire. The former is, as a general rule, the policy pursued in the French, the Japanese, and the American dependencies. The latter prevails in the British, the Italian, and the Portuguese. In the Dutch possessions, the tariff is mainly for revenue, without discrimination. Germany, when she had colonies, followed the policy of the Open Door, as did the British Empire up to the present century. The Mandatory Power appoints both the administrative and technical staffs, just as in a colony, and these naturally favour their own country.