The True Theory of Empire
All modern empires, except perhaps the vast possessions of Portugal, which can hardly be described as a modern empire, have arisen out of certain economic needs felt by "advanced" states. As such a state becomes more and more industrialized, it finds itself confronted, under the present industrial system, with a home market which is saturated. This chapter deals with the Empire system as a whole. Britain, which developed the modern industrial system long before any other country, was historically the first Power to feel the pressure of surplus goods and surplus capital on a temporarily saturated market at home. That is why British policy has been effectively concentrated on empire for a longer period than that of other countries. The primary consideration in any change of the modern system of empires must be the welfare of the backward peoples concerned; but at the same time we must adopt such measures as will help to remove the grievances of advanced states.