chapter  1


The employment of nursing professionals is contextual and has been influenced by social and economic trends. The workforce challenge has felt the effects of the recent recession which brought about significant decreases in health-care spending in several Member States of the European Union (EU). Job satisfaction is particularly important in one's early career. Most newly qualified practitioners require time to become confident and satisfied with their employment. Most nurses in the EU are employed in health-care institutions, the principal one of which is the hospital. A major challenge in most Member States relates to the provision of an appropriate institutional staff. Used to varying degrees in EU, the audit and feedback's purpose is to improve performance of health-care professionals in the interests of quality and safety. Shift handover's primary purpose is the transfer of pertinent information from the nursing staff going off duty to incoming one, so that the latter will be able to assume responsibility for appropriate patient care.