The term "industrial action" refers to any noncooperation with management for the purpose of reducing productivity in the workplace. It may occur in the context of a labor dispute or it may be meant to impact social, economic, or political change. Collective actions are undertaken to create better conditions for the profession and for patients. Nurses' role as patient advocates justifies industrial action related to the quality of care. In Spain, collective action has been taken on behalf of equality of pay in the public and private sectors. In many Member States, collective action may only be taken after attempts have been made to resolve the dispute in question by other means. These efforts involve extra-judicial or alternate dispute resolution: conciliation, mediation, and arbitration. The scope of these procedures is to aid industrial partners, management, and labor, in their search for a viable solution to their disagreement without resorting to traditional legal structures.