Politics and participation
This chapter provides an analysis of a rich variety of government enactments on workers' participation and control. Governments have many opportunities to promote or to stultify a concern for democratic processes of decision-making. Political considerations, involving both hindsight and foresight, dominated the birth of the scheme, regardless of whether labour sired it on management, or the other way round. The newly unified German Trade Union Federation consciously made co-determination the main plank in its platform because this seemed the best means for unifying the politically diverse elements among its membership. In fact, the distinction between labor-managed and non-labor-managed is far more significant than the distinction between socialist and non-socialist. Two well-known approaches have been adopted in the cause of the measurement of the configuration of power in Yugoslav factories; the first using the 'control-graph' method, and the second relying on the careful observation of council meetings.