This chapter provides information on childhood circumcision, presenting the case of a 6 weeks old patient who has been brought to the health visitor's routine Child Development Clinic for examination. The usual reasons for childhood circumcision are: hypospadias (when it is often part of a longer series of operations); abnormality of the prepuce (e.g. phimosis), obstructing the flow of urine; religious custom (e.g. Jews and Moslems); tribal custom (as in this case); hygiene (requested by parents). Circumcision for religious reasons can be carried out by medical or non-medical persons, both of whom usually undergo a long programme of training for this procedure. The post-operative care is normally carried out by the person doing the operation. Over the years, medical opinion has varied between enthusiastic support for, and virulent opposition to, routine circumcision.