This chapter, written for undergraduate medical students and post-graduate doctors in training, presents information on how to manage abdominal pain — a case which they are likely to encounter in the future in a general practice setting. It presents the case of a 30-year-old woman who has a 2-day history of lower abdominal pain. The pain is low down in the right side of her abdomen and is constant and sharp, worse when she passes a bowel motion or sits down. The chapter provides details of the patients' medical history and the key findings of clinical examination, together with initial investigation results data for evaluation, and helps them develop their skills of clinical reasoning. Key questions then prompt the student to evaluate the patient, and reach a decision regarding their condition and the possible treatment plan.