This chapter, written for undergraduate medical students and post-graduate doctors in training, presents information on how to manage memory loss — a case which they are likely to encounter in the future in a general practice setting. It presents the case of an 81-year-old woman comes with her niece to see her general practitioner for her annual medication review. She was diagnosed with dementia 6 months ago, but at the time she had not wanted to start anticholinesterase inhibitor/cholinergic treatment (Donepezil) as she had read it would cause urinary incontinence. The chapter provides details of the patients' medical history and the key findings of clinical examination, together with initial investigation results data for evaluation, and helps them develop their skills of clinical reasoning. Key questions then prompt the student to evaluate the patient, and reach a decision regarding their condition and the possible treatment plan.