chapter  7
Uses of Water and Energy in Food Processing
ByMohammad Shafiur Rahman, Nasser Al-Habsi
Pages 14

Water and energy interact in several ways in the production of food, and this is one of the most energy-intensive industries. Food production will need to be sufficient to support a global population of 9–10 billion by 2050 (FAO report, 2015). Starling (2015) points out that a UK group identified that there are 2000–5000 L of water embedded in food every day per person, which is equivalent to 730,000–1,825,000 million L annually. Total annual global water requirements are expected to jump from 4500 to 6900 billion m3 by 2030 (Hoekstra, 2015). The FAO (2015) reported that agriculture will continue to be the largest user of water resources in most countries. It was mentioned that 90% of all freshwater is used by agriculture (70%) and industry (20%), leaving 10% for domestic use (Starling, 2015). The report “Feeding Ourselves Thirsty” ranked 37 major food companies on their corporate water management and risk response. This report also identified that the food industry is unprepared for global water shortages (Michail, 2015).