chapter  2
80 Pages

Core projections

ByVictor Junnan Pan

Notions such as “core projections” and “optional projections” are proposed in Luigi Rizzi. Core projections are always present in the left-periphery in Italian, and their order is relatively fixed. Based on this notion, Victor Junnan Pan highlights that functional projections in Chinese are also divided into two categories: core projections and optional projections. This chapter focuses on the order issue between different core projections by completing each layer of the periphery identified in Pan with new elements observed from the collected data. The original presentation in Pan is limited because of the length of the article, and the chapter explains many detailed differences among different particles. The chapter examines the reason why they are located in the relevant projections. Core-functional projections in the left-periphery are not uniformly head-final; some are head-final, and others are head-initial. This non-uniform property of functional projections gives difficulties when one tries to determine the syntactic hierarchy between them.