This chapter examines more critically what is involved in self- and peer assessment, and involving students in assessment. Self-assessment is the process by which students describe their own learning products or learning processes in light of agreed characteristics and standards. Instead of just giving students a rubric as a fait accompli, it may be possible to generate appropriate assessment criteria for an assessment activity with the students themselves. Judgment of Learning involves students in predicting how well they will do on a forthcoming test of the material being studied. Peer assessment is the appraisal of student work by fellow learners. This requires each student to produce a critical analysis of someone else's work and to receive critical appraisals of their own work. Marking a classmate's test score or homework sheet is a long-standing peer assessment process. Implementing peer assessment requires significant upfront preparation on the part of the teacher.