Learning from feminism
Arising in response to sexism in a related way to that in which noncitizenism arises in response to citizenism or statusism, feminism is examined in this chapter as a methodological tool from which noncitizenism can learn. It analyses feminist critiques of liberalism, and in turn critiques of those critiques, in order to develop methodological insights for the development of noncitizenism. The chapter adopts the following conventions: 'sex', 'physical maleness' and 'physical femaleness' are used to refer narrowly to a person's physical sex, including her/his organs and hormonal organisation. In the 1980s and 1990s, feminist liberal political theorists identified substantial problems with liberal political theory which, without argument, assumed the household to be the fundamental unit of human political organisation, thereby ignoring relationships within the household. Feminism in theory and in practice has affected policy-making, popular discourse, and lives in States built upon liberal democratic principles.