Global challenges to citizenism
Shirley Pryce acknowledges States and citizenships. The noncitizenism she exhibits is a real and political relationship within that world of States, additional to, not in opposition to, citizenship. The domestic workers movement is not based around citizenship or quasi-citizenship. While it includes calls for regularisation of status and access to citizenship, this is not fundamental, but instead presented as a means of securing rights and addressing vulnerability. People relate to States as noncitizens for a variety of reasons. They may be far away, at States' borders, or within their territories. They may be stateless persons, migrants, formal citizens. They share a special sort of noncitizen-vulnerability to States built upon liberal democratic principles and to the State system. Individuals made vulnerable by their activated noncitizenship with their countries of formal citizenship, then made vulnerable by activated noncitizenship from afar, were made even more vulnerable at the border.