chapter  3
The third phase
From the outbreak of the war to September 1941
ByPontus Rudberg
Pages 27

Visa requirements for all foreigners and different forms of blockades and restrictions made it more difficult both to escape from, and to aid the Jews within the Reich. With the outbreak of the war, Swedish authorities made certain changes to the refugee system. This chapter deals with the responses of Swedish Jews to these issues. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs' influence over the refugee policy increased with the outbreak of the war as a visa requirement was extended to include all countries. The Jewish leadership in Sweden gradually came to realize that traditional philanthropy-based charity simply did not hold up in the face of the new situation. As the transmigration system failed in 1940 and the situation for Jews in Nazi Germany deteriorated further, the MFST became involved in a number of individual cases where personal connections were able to override the bureaucratic distance between the refugee and the MFST and, most importantly, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.