This chapter provides insights into how the German Jewish and the Swedish Jewish elites perceived the Nazi policies and how these perceptions changed over time. Although small in numbers the Swedish Jewish minority and its organizations were in many ways typical of Western European diaspora communities. The Swedish example thus helps to illuminate Jewish reactions to the Holocaust by showing how the responses of a European Jewish community were connected to other Jewish organizations on the transnational and international level. By analysing the MFST's aid efforts in relation to Swedish Jewish room for manoeuvre during the Nazi era, the chapter modifies the history of the Swedish Jewish response to Nazi terror. It shows the heavy impact both of official refugee policy in Sweden and of international organizations for refugee aid and foreign relief to Jews during the period.