Introduction: Ideas and the Transition from Technology to Innovation Policy
During the late 1970s, most advanced industrialized countries made clear changes in the nature and content of policy measures in a number of fields, the most celebrated of them being the transition from a Keynesian towards a Monetarist strategy in macro-economic policy (Hall 1986, 1989). In research and technological development (RTD) policies, the 1970s featured a striking change too. These new policies became more project funding oriented as opposed to the en-bloc funding which was the norm in the decades following World War II. This was the result of an increased utilization of RTD policy for the purpose of solving wider economic problems (Gibbons, et al 1994; Ruivo, 1994; Biegelbauer, 2000), which was also present in the Eastern Bloc (Biegelbauer, 1998). The economic turbulences caused by the oil crisis, the first signs of the international debt crises, and the new social movements can be seen as some of the factors which underpinned these policy changes at late 1970s.