Design and Analysis of Experiments
The researcher's role in behavioral experimentation is an active one. The re-searcher arranges the conditions for observing behavior, imposes systematic changes on these conditions, and measures the effects of these changes on behavior. These activities contrast with the researcher's role when behavior is studied naturalistically, when observational or correlational approaches are used. Most research on how young children learn to read in school settings is of the latter sort. Researchers have relied mainly on observation of naturally occurring behavior and have employed correlational statistics to describe relations among variables. In this chapter we explore the techniques and the advantages and disadvantages from the systematic application of experimental design concepts and procedures to research on relations between reading instruction and acquisition.