The Fundamental Principles of Antenna Theory for V2I Deployments
In this chapter, we will introduce the propagation characteristics—the process of spreading to a larger area—of electromagnetic waves that are transmitted by an antenna used in 208a vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) deployment by a roadside unit (RSU). The intent of this chapter is to provide a simplistic explanation of antenna theory with a concentration on two-dimensional and three-dimensional pictorial representations of a V2I deployment. The fundamental principles of electromagnetic waves normally start with Maxwell’s equations along with the study of electric and magnetic fields as a variable of time. However, the objective is placed on those with little or no knowledge of antenna theory but who are responsible for planning, managing, or owning a V2I deployment. The fundamental principles of electromagnetic waves and antenna theory are topics that can be found in most electrical engineering or radio communication textbooks. As a result, this chapter will summarize the basic concepts related to electromagnetic waves and focus on the application of antenna theory in a V2I deployment as the signal propagates from an RSU.