‘External Barrier’ Theories of Unemployment
Unemployment can be explained in two different ways. On the one hand, it can be interpreted as an individual failure or the consequence of antisocial behaviour, for example, under modem welfare provision (what we called the ‘pathological’ theory of unemployment). On the other hand it can be attributed to problems which concern economies as a whole and cannot be overcome by single individuals (the ‘external barrier’ theory of unemployment). If, as the previous chapters have shown, the ‘pathological’ theory is doubtful, which explanations are left? This chapter will list the most frequently voiced causes of unemployment, categorise them according to the two classifications (pathological or external) and examine the ‘external barrier’ theories in order to present an alternative to the ‘pathological’ view.