chapter  4
52 Pages

The Management of Organizations

To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control. HENRI FAYOL

I am convinced that a logical scheme of organization, a structure based on principles, which take priority over personalities, is in the long run better both for the morale of an undertaking as a whole and for the happiness of individuals, than the attempt to build one's organization around individuals. LYNDALL F. URWICK

Scientific management will mean, for the employers and the workmen who adopt it, the elimination of almost all causes for dispute and disagreement between them. FREDERICK W. TAYLOR

It [modern management] was to ensure that as a craft declined the worker would sink to the level of general and undifferentiated labour power, adaptable to a large range of simple tasks, while as science grew, it would be concentrated in the hands of management. HARRY BRAVERMAN

How can we avoid the two extremes: too great bossism in giving orders, and practically no orders given? ... My solution is to depersonalize the giving of orders, to unite all concerned in a study of the situation, to discover the law of the situation and obey that. MARY PARKER FOLLETT

The needs of large-scale organization have to be satisfied by common people achieving uncommon performance. PETER F. DRUCKER

An organization does not make decisions; its function is to provide a framework, based on established criteria, within which decisions can be fashioned in an orderly manner. ALFRED P. SLOAN

Excellent companies were, above all, 'brilliant on the basics'. THOMAS J. PETERS a n d ROBERT H. WATERMAN

A 'Z' company can balance social relationships with productivity because the two relate closely anyway: a society and an economy represent two facets of one nation. WILLIAM OUCHI

The degree to which the opportunity to use power effectively is granted or withheld from individuals is one operative difference between those companies which stagnate and those which innovate. ROSABETH MOSS KANTER

An organization ... quite literally does impose the environment that imposes on it. KARL E. WEICK

Organizations with different structures, functioning in different environments, have to be managed. As long as there is management there will be the problem of how to manage better. In one sense, attempts at answers to the problem will be as numerous as there are managers, for each will bring an individual approach to the task. Nonetheless, at any one time there is enough in common for there to be broad similarities in what is thought and what is taught on this issue. The writers in this section have each sought to improve the understanding of administration and its practice. They have looked for the ingredients of a better management.