chapter  2
40 Pages

The Organization in its Environment

The beginning of administrative wisdom is the awareness that there is no one optimum type of management system. TOM BURNS

The effective organization has integrating devices consistent with the diversity of its environment. The more diverse the environment and the more differentiated the organization, the more elaborate the integrating devices. PAUL LAWRENCE a n d JAY LORSCH

Uncertainties pose major challenges to rationality. JAMES D. THOMPSON

The key to organizational survival is the ability to acquire and maintain resources. JEFFREY PFEFFER a n d GERALD R. SALANCIK

Efficient organizations establish mechanisms that complement their market strategy. RAYMOND E. MILES a n d CHARLES C. SNOW

An ecology of organizations seeks to understand how social conditions affect the rates at which new organizations and new organizational forms arise, the rates at which organizations change forms, and the rates at which organizations and forms die out. MICHAEL T. HANNAN a n d JOHN H. FREEMAN

Whether they like it or not the headquarters of multinationals are in the business of multicultural management. GEERT HOFSTEDE

All organizations are situated in an environment, be it business, governmental, educational or voluntary service. In this environment are other organizations and people with whom transactions have to take place. These will include suppliers, clients or customers, and competitors. In addition there will be more general aspects of the environment which will have important effects, such as legal, technological and ethical developments.